Vitamin B12 foods

Vitamin B12 foods: what to eat

Vitamin B12 plays an important role, helping your body to release energy from the food you eat and keep the nervous system healthy. And you might have heard that it’s found almost only in animal products, so even if you eat a balanced diet, you need to take special care to make sure you’re getting enough of this nutrient.

Why is vitamin B12 important?

Vitamin B12 has some essential roles in the body, including:

  • making red blood cells
  • releasing energy from food
  • keeping the nervous system healthy
  • helping the body use folate, which in turn helps create healthy blood cells

Which foods are high in vitamin B12?

Vitamin B12 is measured in micrograms (µg) and the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for adults aged 19 to 64 is 1.5 µg a day – a tiny amount.

To make sure you’re getting your daily dose of vitamin B12, include a range of these vitamin B12 food sources in your diet:

  • fish – 100g of baked cod in breadcrumbs contains 1 µg of vitamin B12, which is around 60% of an adult’s RDA
  • meat – 100g of stewed beef mince contains around 0.8 µg of vitamin B12, around half of the RDA
  • milk – 100ml of whole milk contains around 0.9 µg of vitamin B12, around half of the RDA
  • cheese – 100g of reduced-fat cottage cheese contains around 0.6 µg of vitamin B12, which is around a third of the RDA
  • eggs – a medium-boiled egg contains around 0.25 µg of vitamin B12, which is around 16% of the RDA
  • some fortified breakfast cereals – a 30g portion of fortified bran flakes contains 0.69 µg of vitamin B12, which is around half of the RDA
  • Vitamin B12 is mainly found in animal products and not naturally in fruit, vegetables, and grains. If you don’t eat animal products, look out for bread or cereals that are fortified with vitamin B12 or speak to your health practitioner about taking a vitamin B12 supplement.

What happens if I don’t get enough vitamin B12?

Healthy red blood cells carry oxygen around the body using a substance called hemoglobin. If you don’t get enough vitamin B12, the body can make abnormally large red blood cells that don’t work properly. Too few red blood cells or low hemoglobin levels can lead to a condition called anemia.

Not getting enough vitamin B12 can also cause:

  • tiredness and lack of energy
  • pins and needles
  • a red, sore tongue
  • mouth ulcers
  • disturbed vision
  • depression
  • confusion
  • problems with memory, understanding, and judgment
  • weak muscles

When to see a doctor?

If you think you have anemia or a vitamin B12 deficiency, speak to your doctor. Diagnosis is usually fairly straightforward and may involve a blood test.

Key points

  • vitamin B12 is important for a healthy nervous system
  • fish, meat, milk, eggs, cheese, and some fortified cereals contain vitamin B12
  • vegans need to take extra care to get enough vitamin B12, as it is found mainly in animal products
  • anemia can be caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency
  • speak to your doctor if you think you might have vitamin B12 deficiency

Author: Helen Prentice

5 references
Vitamins and Minerals [Internet]. NHS. 2020. [cited 3 January 2021]. Available here
Vitamins and Minerals [Internet]. Bupa. 2020. [cited 3 January 2021]. Available here
The Vegan Diet [Internet]. NHS. 2018. [cited 3 January 2021]. Available here
Explore Food Calculator [Internet]. British Nutrition Foundation 2021. [cited 3 January 2021]. Available here
Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency [Internet]. NHS. 2019. [cited 3 January 2021]. Available here

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