Diseases & Treatment Uncategorized

Upset stomach with no apparent cause? What is it, and how to deal with them

It feels uncomfortable in your stomach. It is not heartburn but is related to eating. Sometimes the discomfort begins during a meal; sometimes, it starts about 30 minutes afterward. Bloating, early satiety or loss of appetite, feeling full or burning pain in your stomach, loud growling or gurgling, and gas; other common symptoms include acid reflux, heartburn, excessive burping, etc. You are feeling nauseated, and you may even vomit. Dyspepsia is what doctors call an upset stomach or indigestion. Dyspepsia is diagnosed as functional when no cause can be found by standard tests (1). Doctors sometimes need help understanding the reasons for their occurrence. There may be a connection between the brain and nerves.

Several over-the-counter and prescription medications can be used to treat dyspepsia, including antacids, antagonists of the H-2 receptor, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), prokinetics, antibiotics, and antidepressants (2).

Diet, exercise, adequate sleep, and psychological therapy can be helpful when there is no clear medical solution (3).

Maintain a healthy diet

  • Symptom-triggering foods should be avoided. The most common triggers are caffeine, fried foods, chocolate, onions, garlic, and alcohol, as well as spicy, acidic, and fatty foods.
  • Soda should be replaced with water.
  • Smaller, more frequent meals are recommended to prevent stomach distension and to allow it to empty more quickly. Empty stomachs can sometimes contribute to functional dyspepsia. Consider having a cracker or a fruit snack as a snack instead of a large meal.
  • Make sure you chew your food thoroughly and slowly.
  • Avoid Drinking carbonated beverages, smoking, chewing gum, eating quickly, and chewing gum that will cause you to swallow excess air.
  • Within two hours of eating, avoid lying down.
  • Late-night snacks should be avoided.

Relax and reduce stress

  • Relaxation therapies can be used to reduce stress.
  • Exercise is important. Besides being good for your health, it also reduces stress.
  • Engage in hobbies, sports, and other activities to reduce stress.
  • Consider cognitive behavioral therapy. Chronic indigestion can adversely affect a person’s quality of life and overall well-being. Some people may find it helpful to seek counseling for these issues.

Reducing fatigue

  • Make sure you get enough sleep.
  • Set a regular time for getting up and going to bed.
  • Caffeine should be avoided afternoon.

Lifestyle alternatives

  • Avoid wearing clothing that is too tight
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • The head of the bed should be raised
  • If you smoke, try to stop or avoid it

Engaging in physical activity

  • Exercise aerobically three to five times a week for 20 to 40 minutes each time.
  • Exercise after eating should be avoided.





Diseases & Treatment

Melasma: treatments

Melasma is a pigmentation disease of the pores and skin commonly affecting girls, main people with darker skin. it is commonly visible on the face and looks like dark spots and patches with abnormal borders. Melasma isn’t bodily dangerous, but studies have proven that it could lead to psychological problems and poorer excellent of life because of the adjustments it reasons in someone’s appearance.

Melasma is a common disorder, with an occurrence of one% that may increase to 50% in better-chance organizations, including people with darker skin. Melasma is referred to as the “mask of pregnancy” because hormonal adjustments as a result of pregnancy, as well as hormonal medicines which include beginning manipulate drugs, are primary triggers for excessive pores and skin pigment manufacturing in melasma. sun publicity is some other essential contributor to melasma.

How to prevent Melasma?

Presently, melasma can not be avoided in folks who are likely to develop this situation due to their genetics, skin coloration kind, hormones, or sun publicity stage. warding off direct sun exposure throughout height hours (10 a.m. to 4 p.m.), diligently the usage of high-SPF sunscreens, and avoiding hormonal medications while viable can also assist guard in opposition to melasma flares and reduce their recurrence after remedy. Strict solar safety is the mainstay of any melasma remedy routine.

What sunscreen should melasma sufferers use?

selecting the ideal sunscreen is crucial in case you increase melasma, and research has shown that extensive-spectrum tinted sunscreens, the main ones containing iron oxide, can lower pigment manufacturing in the pores and skin in melasma sufferers, as they block seen light in addition to UVA/UVB rays. Non-tinted sunscreens, however, do no longer block visible light.

For some humans, it might be extra convenient to apply beauty merchandise which includes foundations that comprise each UVA/UVB blocker, and visible mild blockers which include an iron oxide. that merchandise can hide dark spots and therefore alleviate the psychosocial impact of melasma, and at the equal time act as a sunscreen to protect against darkening of the lesions.

it is vital for human beings with melasma to recognize that visible mild can undergo home windows, and therefore even though they are no longer out within the sun, they can nonetheless get melasma flares by using exposing themselves to seen mild while driving or sitting by using a window.

Can melasma be dealt with?

presently there’s no cure for melasma; but, there are numerous medicines and processes to be had to manipulate this circumstance. it is critical to understand that these treatment options might also result in an incomplete reaction, which means that a number of the discolorations end up lighter or disappear whilst a few remain unchanged. in addition, common relapses are not unusual.

it’s also crucial to be aware of feasible side results of the remedy, along with darkening of the skin resulting from irritation triggered with the aid of the remedy, or greater lightening of the skin in a dealt with the vicinity. using the ideal medicines under the supervision of a dermatologist can assist obtain remedy goals and maintaining them with fewer relapses.

Remedies for melasma treatments

The maximum commonly used remedies for melasma are skin-lightening medicines which are carried out topically. these consist of medicinal drugs inclusive of hydroquinone, azelaic acid, kojic acid, niacinamide, cysteamine, rucinol, and tranexamic acid. those medicines work by reducing pigment manufacturing and irritation, and by using decreasing extra blood vessels in the skin that contribute to melasma.

Pregnant ladies (who constitute a big percentage of melasma sufferers) should keep away from most of those medications except for azelaic acid, which is a safe choice at some stage in pregnancy. Hydroquinone is a usually used skin lightener that needs to handiest be used for a confined time due to facet consequences that could appear with prolonged use. it may be used for up to six months for initial remedy after which every so often if wanted.

In maximum patients, aggregate therapy is wanted for the treatment of melasma. A not unusual choice is the combination of hydroquinone with a retinoid that increases skin mobile turnover and a steroid that decreases skin infection. Oral medications, which include tranexamic acid, are generally considered in more severe melasma cases. This medicinal drug is notion to assist melasma through lowering pigment production and through lowering extra blood vessels in the pores and skin.

Additional treatment procedures can also assist

In case your melasma does now not enhance with topical or oral medications, strategies which include chemical peels and laser cures to a treatment routine could be useful.

  • Chemical peels use materials like glycolic acid, alpha-hydroxy acids, and salicylic acid to eliminate the superficial layer of the pores and skin which includes excess pigment in melasma sufferers. The outcomes of a chemical peel are temporary, on account that this manner removes a layer of the skin without lowering the manufacturing of pigment in regenerating deeper layers.
  • Laser therapies can spoil pigment cells in pores and skin and therefore lighten the darkish spots in melasma. however, as with any other remedy option for melasma, there’s a huge danger of relapse post-treatment.
  • Renovation therapy and prevention After achieving improvement of melasma lesions, strict sun protection, and protection remedy want to be persisted. pores and skin lighteners other than hydroquinone can be used in combination with retinoids to hold the results, and hydroquinone remedies can be used intermittently if wanted.


the key factor in the management of melasma is to use sun protection all of the time and to avoid different triggers such as hormonal medicinal drugs while viable. seeing that not one of them be had treatments are a treatment, prevention is the excellent choice. human beings with melasma have to see a board-certified dermatologist for assessment and appropriate treatment regimens to manipulate melasma and preserve the treatment outcomes.

Diseases & Treatment

Anemia prevention

Anemia prevention

Ways to prevent Anemia:

Iron deficiency can cause anemia, a shortage of hemoglobin in the blood. This can lead to weakness, fatigue, a pale face, earlobes, and brittle spoon-shaped nails. There are other causes of anemia besides nutritional deficiency, including massive or chronic blood loss. You can prevent iron-deficiency anemia by making wise food choices for yourself and your family.

Getting your daily iron from food is preferable to taking iron supplements, which sometimes cause abdominal discomfort and constipation.

Many types of anemia can not be prevented. But iron deficiency anemia and vitamin deficiency anemias can be avoided by having a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and nutrients.


1. Eat a diet rich in iron:
Iron-rich food
Iron-rich food

Make sure that you get enough iron through nutritious, whole foods. Eating iron-rich foods can help prevent anemia.

2. Increase your Vitamin C and folate intake:

The presence of Vitamin C and folate can help the body absorb iron more efficiently. Incorporating more foods containing Vitamin C and folate or taking a supplement for these nutrients can help minimize your risk for anemia.

3. Consume foods containing Vitamin B-12:
Vitamin B-12 food
Vitamin B-12 food

Consume whole foods that contain Vitamin B-12, which is found naturally in animal and soy products. Making sure you get enough vitamin B 12 which may not help you prevent anemia, but can also help your body absorb iron more efficiently.

4. Take Vitamin B-12 and folate supplements:

If you are having trouble getting enough B12 or folate through food, consider taking pill supplements or getting a shot from the doctor. This may help you get plenty of Vitamin B12 and prevent you from developing anemia.

5. Cook using iron pots and pans:

There is more evidence that using cast iron cookware can increase your iron intake. Consider investing in a cast-iron skillet to help boost the amount of iron you consume in your diet.

Diseases & Treatment

Anemia Treatment

Anemia Treatment

Anemia Treatment… Treating anemia entails treating the condition of low hemoglobin and red blood cells in blood as well as detecting and treating the disease process that has led to the anemia.

Unless the underlying cause of anemia;

which may be continuous blood loss, hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency, or increased demand states like pregnancy, are assessed and managed, the treatment remains incomplete.

Anemia treatment depends on the cause
Iron deficiency anemia:

Treatment for this form of anemia usually involves taking iron supplements and making changes to your diet.

If the underlying cause of iron deficiency is a loss of blood – other than from menstruation – the source of the bleeding must be located and stopped.

This may involve surgery.

Vitamin deficiency anemia:

Treatment for folic acid and B-12 deficiency involves dietary supplements and increasing these nutrients in your diet. If your digestive system has trouble absorbing vitamin B-12 from the food you eat, you may need vitamin B-12 shots.

At first, you may receive the shots every other day. 

Eventually, you will need shots just once a month. which may continue for life and it is depending on your situation.

Anemia of chronic disease:

There is no specific treatment for this type of anemia. Doctors focus on treating the underlying disease. If symptoms become severe, a blood transfusion or injections of synthetic erythropoietin, a hormone normally produced by your kidneys, may help stimulate red blood cell production and ease fatigue.

Aplastic anemia:

Treatment of anemia may include blood transfusions to boost levels of red blood cells. You may need a bone marrow transplant if your bone marrow is diseased and can not make healthy blood cells.

Anemia associated with bone marrow disease:

Treatment of these various diseases can include medication, chemotherapy, or bone marrow transplantation.

Hemolytic anemia:

Managing hemolytic anemia includes avoiding suspect medications, treating related infections, and taking drugs that suppress your immune system, which may be attacking your red blood cells. Depending on the severity of your anemia, a blood transfusion or plasmapheresis may be necessary.


Diseases & Treatment

Anemia Symptoms

Anemia Symptoms

Because low red blood cells count decreases oxygen delivery to every tissue in the body, anemia can cause a variety of signs and symptoms. It can also worsen the symptoms of almost any other underlying medical condition.

If anemia is mild, it may not cause any symptoms. If anemia is slowly ongoing (chronic), the body may adapt and compensate for the change; in this case, there may not be any symptoms until the anemia becomes more severe.

Symptoms of anemia may include the following:

  • Fatigue
  • Decreased energy
  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Lightheadedness
  • Palpitations (feeling of the heart racing or beating irregularly)
  • Looking pale.

Symptoms of severe anemia may include:

  • Chest pain, angina, or heart attack
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting or passing out
  • Rapid heart rate.

Some of the signs that may indicate anemia in an individual may include:

Change in stool colour, including black and tarry stools (sticky and foul smelling), maroon-colored, or visibly bloody stools if the anemia is due to blood loss through the gastrointestinal tract;

  • Pale or cold skin
  • Yellow skin called jaundice if anemia is due to red blood cell breakdown.
  • Enlargement of the spleen with certain causes of anemia.
Diseases & Treatment

Types of Anemia

Types of Anemia

in the previous articles, we have learned what is anemia? cause of anemia and now we will go through the types of anemia. Tough there are various types of anemia but here we will discuss some common types of anemia. The most common types of anemia:

  1. Iron deficiency anemia
  2. Aplastic anemia
  3. Thalassemia
  4. Hemolytic anemia
  5. Sickle cell anemia
  6. Pernicious anemia
  7. Fanconi anemia
Iron-deficiency Anemia
Types of Anemia

The most common form of anemia is iron deficiency anemia which is usually due to chronic blood loss caused by excessive menstruation.

Increased demands for iron, such as fetal growth in pregnancy, children undergoing rapid growth spurts in infancy and adolescence, can also cause iron-deficiency anemia.

Aplastic Anemia
Types of Anemia

Aplastic anemia is a blood disorder in which the body’s bone marrow does not make enough new blood cells. This may result in a number of health problems including arrhythmia, an enlarged heart, heart failure, infections, and bleeding. Aplastic anemia is a rare but serious condition.

It should be noted that Aplastic anemia can develop suddenly or slowly and tends to worsen with time unless the cause is found and treated.

Hemolytic Anemia

Hemolytic anemia is a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before their normal lifespan is up.

Types of Anemia

A number of diseases, conditions, and factors can cause the body to destroy its red blood cells. Hemolytic anemia can lead to various health problems such as fatigue, pain, arrhythmia, an enlarged heart, and heart failure.


Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders that cause the body to make fewer healthy red blood cells and less hemoglobin.

Hemoglobin or HB is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells.

The two major types of thalassemia are alpha and beta-thalassemia.

The most severe form of alpha thalassemia is known as alpha thalassemia major or hydrops fetails.

While the severe form of beta-thalassemia is known as thalassemia major or Cooley’s anemia.

Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle cell anemia is a serious disease in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells.

Normal blood cells are disk-shaped and move easily through your blood vessels.

sickle cell

Sickle cells contain abnormal hemoglobin that causes the cell to have a sickle shape, which does not move easily through the blood vessels.

They are stiff and sticky and tend to form clumps and get stuck in the blood vessels.

In sickle cell anemia a lower than the normal number of red blood cells occurs because sickle cells do not last very long.

Sickle cells usually die after about 10 to 20 days and the body can not reproduce red blood cells fast enough to replace the dying ones, which causes anemia.

Pernicious Anemia

Pernicious anemia is a condition in which a body can not make enough healthy red blood cells because it does not have enough Vitamin B12.

pernicious Anemia

People who have pernicious anemia can not absorb enough Vitamin B12 due to a lack of intrinsic factor (a protein made in the stomach).

However, other conditions and factors can also cause Vitamin B12 deficiency.

Fanconi Anemia

Fanconi anemia or FA is a rare inherited blood disorder that leads to bone marrow failure.

Fanconi anemia

FA is a type of aplastic anemia that prevents your bone marrow from making enough new blood cells for your body to work normally.

FA can also cause your bone marrow to make many abnormal blood cells. This can lead to serious health problems such as leukemia.

FA is a blood disorder, but it can also affect many of the body’s organs, tissues, and systems.

Children who inherit FA are at a higher risk of being born with birth defects, and people who have FA are at a higher risk of developing cancers and other serious health problems.

FA is an unpredictable disease.

Diseases & Treatment

Causes of Anemia

Causes of Anemia

The main causes of anemia are:

Blood loss

It is the most common cause of anemia. Especially iron-deficiency anemia. Blood loss can be short term or persist over time.

Heavy menstrual periods or bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract can cause blood loss.

Surgery, trauma, or cancer also can cause blood loss. If a lot of blood is lost, the body may lose enough red blood cells to cause anemia.

Lack of Red Blood Loss production

Both acquired and inherited conditions and factors can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells.

  • Acquired means you are not born with the condition, but you develop it.
  • Inherited means your parents passed the gene for the condition on to you.

Acquired conditions and factors that can lead to anemia include a poor diet, abnormal hormone levels, some chronic diseases, and pregnancy.


A diet that lacks iron, folic acid (folate), or vitamin B12 can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells. Your body also needs small amounts of vitamin C, riboflavin, and copper to make red blood cells. Conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb nutrients also can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells.


Your body needs the hormone erythropoietin to make red blood cells. This hormone stimulates the bone marrow to make these cells. A low level of this hormone can lead to anemia.

Disease and Disease Treatments

Chronic diseases, like kidney disease and cancer, can make it hard for your body to make enough red blood cells. Some cancer treatments may damage the bone marrow or damage the red blood cell’s ability to carry oxygen. If the bone marrow is damaged, it can not make red blood cells fast enough to replace the ones that die or are destroyed.

People who have HIV/AIDS may develop anemia due to infections or medicines used to treat their diseases.


Anemia can occur during pregnancy due to a low level of iron and folic acid and changes in the blood. During the first six months of pregnancy, the fluid portion of a woman’s blood ( the plasma) increases faster than the number of red blood cells. This dilutes the blood and can lead to anemia.

Aplastic anemia

Some infants are born without the ability to make enough red blood cells. This condition is called aplastic anemia.

Infants and children who have aplastic anemia often need blood transfusions to increase the number of red blood cells in their blood.

Acquired conditions or factors, such as certain medicines, toxins, and infectious diseases, also can cause aplastic anemia.

Diseases & Treatment

What is Anemia?

What is anemia?

What is anemia?

Anemia describes the condition within which the amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin within the blood is low.

For this reason, doctors generally describe somebody with anemia as having a low blood count.

An individual who has anemia is termed anemic.

The normal level of hemoglobin is mostly completely different in males and females.

  • For men, a traditional hemoglobin level is often outlined as a level of more than 13.5 gram/100ml,
  • And in ladies as hemoglobin of more than 12.0 gram/100ml.

Formation of blood

How will the body build blood?

Blood consists of 2 parts:

  1. A liquid referred to as plasma
  2. And a cellular half.

The cellular half contains many completely different cell sorts.

One in every of the foremost necessary and also the most various cell sorts are RED Blood Cells.

The other cell sorts ar white blood cells and platelets.

Only the red blood cells are mentioned during this article.

The aim of the red blood cell is to deliver oxygen from the lungs to alternative elements of the body.

Red blood cells

Red blood cells are made through a series of advanced and specific steps.

They’re created in bone marrow (inner a part of the femur and pelvic bones that build most of the cells within the blood), and once all the right steps in their maturation are complete, they’re free into the bloodstream.

The hemoglobin molecule is that the purposeful unit of the red blood cells and may be an advanced macromolecule structure that’s within the red blood cells.

Contrary to most cells within the material body, red blood cells don’t have a nucleus (metabolic center of a cell).

Red blood cells live for one hundred days, therefore the body is consistently making an attempt to exchange them. In adults, red blood cell production happens within the bone marrow.

Doctors attempt to confirm if an occasional red blood cell count is caused by increased blood loss of red blood cells or from decreased production of them within the bone marrow.

Knowing whether or not the amount of white blood cells and/or platelets has modified additionally helps confirm the reason behind anemia